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Blue Chamomile

Blue Chamomile

Dear Friends-
Suzanne and I hope that all of you are having a fine holiday weekend.

Restocking efforts
In June our restocking of organic and wild harvested essential oils began in earnest and now almost everything is restocked. I have been extending the sourcing contacts into new areas like Bosnia where some excellent distillation is going on of Pinus sylvestris/Scoth Pine, Abies alba/Silver Fir, Laurus nobilis/Grecian Laurel, Helichrysum italicum, Myrtus communis/Sweet Myrtle, etc. It is a very amazing thing to see what role aromatic plants are playing in the redevelopment of countries which have suffered through so many difficulties. We can never be thankful enough for the gifts the botancial world gives to us on many levels. At this point I am beginning to buy in 2-10 liter amounts of individual oils in an attempt to always have some of each oil in stock. It is not always easy to assess how much to procure of an individual oil because our customer base continues to grow steadily and the requirements of each small company or person vary considerably. We are also conscious of the fact that we have limitations as to how far our business can grow and do not want to overstep those natural parameters. As all of you know this balancing act is a true challenge but one that every small business has to face.
Be sure to regularly check internet wholesale prices
Kindly be sure to regularly check our price list on the internet. We are doing our best to keep prices in an affordable range and that remains a true challange. A recent shipment of lovely organic tea tree, organic rose geranium and organic lemongrass coming out of South Africa arrived here this week and the charges for shipping alone were $28 per liter. This is just to give you an idea of how prices are rising for shipping. Yet it is very important to continue to source directly so that the materials arrive quickly from overseas destinations so they can in turn go into the hands of all of you. And of course there is the real benefit of working with distillers who are doing high quality distillations and are dedicated to their art and craft.
Visit to Port Angeles
We just had a refreshing break from our work by visiting my mom in Washington. We spent three full days hiking around Port Angeles where she lives. It was the prime season for wild flowers and it was a great refreshment to simply amble along drinking in the sites, sounds and odors of the simple natural world. The air was super charged with one exquisite aromatic bouquet after another. Inhaling these rich odors which were a melding of the essences of the aromatic plants growing in their own micro-climates was a rewarding experience. Moving along any particular trail one encountered tremendous variety in the perfumes exhuded by the plants. One realizes at such times where many great perfumers get their inspiration-directly from the environments surrounding lakes, rivers, mountains, oceans, etc. Those places are super-charged with odors that are combined by nature in the most exquisite way. Throughout the 24 hours of the day this are a constantly changing symphony of essences coming from each specific locations because plants have their own aromatic cycles during which they put forth different odors which in turn combine with the plants in their vicinity.Breezes, sun, moon and stars and a million other factors are the crucible in which these aromas are combined which can be enjoyed by anyone who comes in their contact and carefully attends to the olfactory treasures present there.


Blue or German chamomile Profile
The word chamomile is derived from the Greek chamos (ground) and melos (apple), referring to the plant's low growing habit and the fact that the fresh blooms are somewhat apple-scented (Smith, 1963).

Botanical Source.—A branching annual, having a stem from 1 to 2 feet high, with alternate, smooth, deep-green, pinnate, or bi- or tri-pinnate leaves, the leaflets of which are small and linear. The numerous small branches bear single, terminal flowers, about 3/4 inch in breadth, with spreading rays. The calyx-scales are obtuse, whitish, translucent, and membranaceous near the margins, but green in the center. The white ray-florets are spreading at first, finally becoming reflected. The disc is convex primarily, and later becomes prominently conical and hollow.

Perfumery(Profiles of both English Chamomile/Anthemis nobilis and Blue Chamomile/Matricaria chamomilla syn. recutita are given)
Roman(English) Chamomile is a pale blue, mobile liquid(when fairly fresh) of sweet herbacious , somewhat fruity-warem and tea-like odor. It is extremely diffusive but has little tenacity. In perfumery it imparts a warm, yet fresh note and natural depth which is difficult to acheive by other means. It blends well with bergamot, jasmin, labdanum, neroli, sage cary, oakmoss. It is mainly a trace additive, independent of the "body" materials in the perfume. It is sometimes preferred over the blue chamomile because of the much paler color
Blue or German Chamomile oil is a deep, ink blue somewhat viscous liquid of intensely sweet,, herbaceous coumarin lik odore with a fresh-fruity undertone. The dryout of a mellow and aged oil is pleasant, sweet tobacco like and warm...
True chamomile oil is sometimes used in very small percentages in high class perfumes to introduce a warm, rich undertone which lasts through all stages of evaporation. The topnote effect of the blue chamomile is less pronounced than the English chamomile...

Phytochemicals Include: Alpha-bisabolol, Choline, Eo, Galacturonic-acid, Glucose, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic -acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic-acid, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic-acid, 3-carene, 3- hydroxy -2-methylidene-butyric-acid-angelate, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-be nzoic-acid, 4-methoxybenzoic-acid, 6-3-dimethoxyquercetin, 6,7-dimethoxyquercetin, 6-hydroxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, 6-methoxykaempferol, Alpha-bisabololoxide-a, Alpha-bisabololoxide-b, Alpha-bisabololoxide-c, Alpha-bisaboloneoxide-a, Alpha- muurolene, Ap igenin Glucosides, Ascorbic-acid, Axillarin, Azulene, Betacaryo-phyllene, Beta-damascenone, Bisabolene, Borneol, Bornyl-acetate, Caffeic-acid, Calamene, Capric-acid, Caprylic-acid, Caryophyllenepoxide, Catechin-tannins, Chamazulene, Chamomilla-esters, Chamomillol, Chlorogenic-acid, Chrysoeriol, Chrysoeriol-7-glucoside, Chrysosplenol, Chrysosplentin, Cis-caryophyllene, Cis-en-yn-dicycloether, Epsilon-1-(2,6-dimethylphenyl) -2-buten-1-one, Ethyl- benzoate, Ethyl-decanoate, Ethyl-palmitate, Ethyl-phenyl acetate, Eupaletin, Farnesene, Farnesol, Furfural, Galactose, Gallic-acid-tannin, Gentisic-acid, Geraniol, Herniarin, Hyperoside, Isoferulic-acid, Isorhamnetin, Isorhamnetin -7-glucoside, Jaceidin, Kaempferol, Linoleic-acid, Luteolin, Luteolin glucosides , Matricarin, Matricin, Niacin, O-coumaric-acid, P-coumaric-acid, Palmitic-acid, Patuletin, Pectic-acid, Perillyl-alcohol, Polyacetylene, Quercetagetin-3,5, 6,7, 3',4'-hexamethylether, Quercetagetin-3,6,7,3',4'-pentamethylether, Querce-tagetin, tetrameth ylether, Quercetin, Quercetin-3-galactoside, Quercetin -7-glucoside, Quercetrin, Quercimeritrin, Rhamnose, Rutin, Salicylic-acid, Sinapic-acid, Spathulenol, Spinacetin, Tannin, Thiamin, Thujone, Trans-alpha- farnesene, Trans-en-yn-dicycloether, Triaconta ne, Umbelliferone, Xanthoxylin, Xylose

Chemical Composition.—In addition to the ordinary constituents of plants, matricaria contains a small portion of tannin and tannates, malates, bitter extractive, and a volatile oil. The latter, known as Oleum Chamomillae Aethereum, may be obtained, by distillation in a suitable apparatus, in the quantity of 0.45 per cent (Schimmel & Co.). It has an aromatic, warm taste, and a pronounced odor of matricaria. It is thick, somewhat viscid, opaque in bulk, but in layers transparent, and has a rich, dark-blue color which, on exposure to air and light, gradually becomes green, and, lastly, brown. Its density is 0.93; its congealing point,—20° C. (-4° F.). It consists of a colorless oil having the composition C10H18O, and a terpene (C10H16). Azulene (of Piesse), or caerulein (of Gladstone), a volatile body said to be present in all blue or green oils, gives to it its blue coloration. It was investigated by Kachler (1871), and occurs only in the highest fractions of the oil. An Oleum Chamomillae Citratum, sometimes met with, is prepared by adding oil of lemon (1 part) to recently gathered matricaria (480 parts), and distilling. It is thinner than the true oil, and its blue color changes more readily. Werner, in 1867, states to have obtained from Matricaria Chamomilla the crystallizable, bitter anthemic acid, isolated by Pattone (1859) from the flowers of Anthemis arvensis, Linné; and a crystallizable alkaloid, which he called anthemidine. Flückiger (1891) doubts the correctness of these results.

Components Identified: 1) 1,8-cineole (6.8%); 2) E-beta-farnesene (2.5%); 3) bisobolol oxide B (9.2%); 4) alpha-bisabolol (6.0%); 5) bisabolene oxide (4.4%); 6) bisabolol oxide A (40.3%); 7) chamazulene (29.7%) [All peaks confirmed by GC-MS]

Matricaria chamomilla, commonly referred to as the chamomile plant, is a member of the Asteraceae (Aster family), and is native to Europe and Western Asia (Renuka, 1992). It is an annual herb that has escaped to the wild and is now naturalized on almost every continent (Jackson, 2000). It can now be found growing along fencerows, roadsides, and in sunny open fields from Southern Canada to Northern U.S. west to Minnesota (Jackson, 2000). Chamomile is easily cultivated, and prefers full sun and a light, well-drained soil (Jackson, 2000). Chamomile is really two different plants that are used in western herbalism. Roman Chamomile (Anthemus nobilis) is a perennial, low-growing plant with a slightly stronger fragrance than the other type, German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) (ermasherbs.com, 1998). Both have daisy-like flowers that bloom from late spring through late summer (Appelt, 1985). The branched stem is somewhat erect, round, and hollow, and grows to about 20 inches tall (Jackson, 2000). The leaves are bipinnate, finely divided, light green and feathery (Jackson, 2000). The entire plant has a pineapple or apple scent (Jackson, 2000).

General Uses
Dye; Essential; Hair; Liquid feed; Repellent; Strewing.
An infusion of the flowers is used as a hair shampoo, especially for fair hair[14, 20, 168]. It is also used as a liquid feed and general plant tonic, effective against a number of plant diseases[14, 18, 20]. The flowers are also an ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator[32].

The whole plant was formerly used as a strewing herb[4, 168]. The whole plant is insect repellent[14, 20].

An essential oil from the whole plant is used as a flavouring and in perfumery[46].

Yellow to gold dyes are obtained from the flowers[168].