Ambrette Seed/Abelmoschus moschatus
Musk mallow, ambrette, mushkdana (En). Ambrette, ketmie musqu‚e (Fr). Indonesia:
gandapura, kasturi (general), kakapasan (Sundanese). Malaysia: kapas hantu, kapas hutan,gandapura. Philippines: dalupang, kastuli, kastiokastiokan (Tagalog). Thailand: chamot-ton, som- chaba (Bangkok), mahakadaeng (northern). Vietnam: c[aa]y b[oo]ng v[af]ng, b[us]p
New Latin abelmoschus, from Arabic ’ab l-musk, source of the musk : ’ab, father, source of; see b in Appendix II + al-, the + musk, musk (from Persian muk; see musk).
Middle English, from Old French musc, from Late Latin muscus, from Greek moskhos, from Persian musk, probably from Sanskrit muskah "testicle". See ms- in Appendix I.
French, from Old French, diminutive of ambre, amber. See amber.
Middle English ambre, from Old French, from Medieval Latin ambra, ambar, from Arabic ‘anbar, ambergris, amber.
Description: "Coarsely hispid herb to 1 or 1.5 m tall, leaves ovate-suborbicular, usually 3-5-lobed, to 15 cm long; stems hirsute; calyx
greenish, spathe-like, caducous; corolla bright yellow with a darker or purplish eye, 8-10 cm wide; fruit a hirsute capsule 6-8 cm long,
ovoid-cylindric; seeds musky-scented" (Stone, 1970).
-Description---This evergreen shrub is about 4 feet in height, having alternate, palmate leaves and large, sulphur yellow, solitary flowers with a purple base. The capsules are in the form of a five-cornered pyramid, filled with large seeds with a strong odour of musk. The capsules are used in soup and for pickles, and the greyish-brown, kidney-shaped seeds, the size of a lentil, with a strong aromatic flavour, are used by the Arabians to mix with coffee. They are used in perfumery for fats and
oils, and for the adulteration of musk.
Native range: India, southern China and tropical Asia, into the Pacific.
Ambrette oil obtained from seeds possess an odor similar to that of musk and its aromatic constitents have long been used in perfumery
industry. Different grades of essential, or aromatic absolute, are marked in Europe as high-grade perfumes (Singh et al. 1996 ) The seeds are
valued for the volatile oil present in the seed coat. Seed analysis report 11.1% moisture, 31.5% crude fiber; 14.5% lipids, 13.4% starch, 2.3%
protein, volatile oil (0.2-0.6% ) and ca/ 5% resin (Srivastava 1995).
A. moschatus is the source of ambrette seed oil used in luxury perfumery, cosmetic products and as an additive in the preparation of some kinds of chewing tobacco, baked products,sweets, alcoholic (e.g. vermouth and bitters) and non-alcoholic drinks. Arabs sometimesflavour their coffee with the seed and in India and Malaysia pounded seeds are used to perfume hair, while seeds are also placed between clothes to keep away insects. Seeds are burned as incense and used in making incense sticks (agarbattis). Tender leaves, shoots and pods are occasionally eaten as vegetable. The tuberous roots of A. moschatus subsp. tuberosus (Span.) Borss. are said to be sought after by the Chinese as a substitute for ginseng. The leaves are sometimes used by Malay people as wrappers for parcels. Fibre from the stem is a substitute for jute, but offers no
advantages over the latter. The mucilage from the roots is used in China for sizing paper. A.moschatus is sometimes grown as an ornamental.
Condiment; Leaves; Root; Seedpod.
Young leaves and shoots - cooked in soups. Used as a vegetable. The leaves are also used to clarify sugar.
Unripe seedpods - cooked as a vegetable in much the same way as okra (A. esculentus)[183, 238].
The seed is used as a flavouring for liqueurs or to scent coffee[183, 238].
An essential oil is obtained from the plant and is used to flavour baked goods, ice cream, sweets and soft drinks.
Root. No more details are given, though the root is likely to have a bland flavour and a fibrous texture.
Essential; Fibre; Insecticide; Oil; Size.
An essential oil is obtained from the plant. It is used as a food flavouring and in perfumery as a musk substitute. However, it has been
known to cause photosensitivity so this use has been largely discontinued.
An oil obtained from the seed contains 18.9% linoleic acid. Total yields of oil are not given[K].
The seeds are used as an insecticide[4, 238]. Another report says that extracts of the fruits and upper parts of the plant show insecticidal
A fibre is obtained from the stem bark.
A mucilage obtained from the roots is used as a size for paper.
Traditions and History (Information is provided for cultural interest, not as a recommendation for treatment of disease)
Traditionally Ambrette seed was used to cure cramps, indigestion, and other stomach problems. It also was used to
treat headaches and to calm nerves. The Chinese liked to use it for helping headaches while the Arabs mixed the seed
with coffee. The Egyptians used the seed to take away bad breath and they also made it into a paste to treat itchiness. It
is popular in the East as a domestic spice.
5-DODECENYL-ACETATE Seed 1 ppm; DUKE1992A
5-TETRADECEN-14-OLIDE Seed 25 ppm; DUKE1992A
5-TETRADECENYL-ACETATE Seed 20 ppm; DUKE1992A
ACETIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
ALPHA-CEPHALIN Seed: DUKE1992A
AMBRETTOL Plant: DUKE1992A
AMBRETTOLIC-ACID Seed: DUKE1992A
Odor Description : Amber
AMBRETTOLIDE(=7-HEXADECEN-16-OLIDE) Seed: DUKE1992A
Odor Description : Fresh Clean Sweet Musk
DECYL-ACETATE Seed 350 ppm; DUKE1992A
Odor Description : Floral Clean Waxy Fresh Laundered Cloths
DECYL-ALCOHOL Seed 350 ppm; DUKE1992A
Odor Description : Floral Orange Sweet Clean Watery
EO Seed 2,000 - 6,000 ppm DUKE1992A
FARNESOL Seed: DUKE1992A
FAT Seed 164,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
FIBER Seed 370,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
FURFURAL Seed: DUKE1992A
Odor Description : Sweet Woody Almod Fragrant Baked Bread
KAEMPFEROL Flower: DUKE1992A
KAEMPFEROL-3-0-GLUCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A
METHIONINE-SULFOXIDE Plant: DUKE1992A
MUCILAGE Root: DUKE1992A
MYRICICETIN Flower: DUKE1992A
MYRICICETIN-3'-GLUCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A
MYRISTIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
PALMITIC-ACID Plant: DUKE1992A
PHOSPHATIDYL-SERINE Seed: DUKE1992A
PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE-PLASMALOGEN Plant: DUKE1992A
PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE-PLASMALOGEN Plant: DUKE1992A
PINEOL Plant: DUKE1992A
PROTEIN Seed 26,000 ppm; DUKE1992A
QUERCETIN Flower: DUKE1992A
QUERCETIN-3'-GLUCOSIDE Flower: DUKE1992A
STARCH Seed 150,000 ppm; DUKE1992A