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Absolute Monographs 1

Dear Friends-

We are now embarking on a new series of monographs which concern the subject of absolutes and their contributions to natural perfumery. In this series you will find simple monographs on known and lesser known absolutes, their physical and olfactory characteristics, their use in natural perfumery and the materials they combine well with. This series of newsletters will probably be 3 in number.

This is a vast and interesting subject and these modest monographs can only give an introductory idea of the complexities of the exquisite aromatic absolutes. Steffen Arctander's classic work, Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin, has continued to serve as a basic reference work for such endeavors but I have tried my best to add my own observations according to my own olfactory explorations of the delightful aromatic palette available to us today. Many new materials have appeared since his work was presented in 1960. I have included monographs on those to the best of my ability. If I have failed to include any authentic materials for which you have examples, and would like me to offer my observations of it, then you are welcome to send a small sample to me and it will appear in a future newsletter.

I would also like to mention that, as many of your know, there has been a genuine renaissance in the realm of natural perfumery. Many people are realizing that they can create aromatic works of great beauty that more closely reflect their personal tastes than any purchased perfume can. I hope this trend will continue as there is great joy in channeling ones creative talents into the evocative world of natural essences. The life experiences of each on of us are unique and special and many times the aromas we encounter through various channels, inspire and stimulate our imagination and creative faculties. It may then occur to us to create special essences capture something of those occasions.

For many years the world of perfumery has been dominated by certain categories of perfumes, i.e. chypre, fougere, oriental, cologne, floral, coniferous, herbal, etc. each which may have many subcategories. All of these are important and shall continue to hold a place of prominence in the years to come. But as the world of natural perfumery moves more and more into the hands of individuals who realize they can participate in the creation process, many more categories will take root and greatly expand the range of categories through which people can express their unique insights into the world around them. Already much is happening in that sphere.

Sacred perfumes can be created to express any number of great religious and spiritual traditions as specific aromatic botanicals are associated with the many approaches to the grand mystery of life. Culinary perfumes can be created to capture the beauty of the cooking traditions of people from various cultures as pungent herbs and aromatic spices loaded with volatile oils play an important part in characterizing their special international dishes. Geographical perfumes can be created to capture some of the grand beauty of a particular spot on the earth. Historical perfumes can give us grand insights into a particular time, place and culture that may have vanished from the world. By studying the various historical records available to us, if we are so inclined, we may recreate something of the atmosphere of a bygone era. It is just to say that if any individual wishes to express something that it is dear to their heart through perfumes, it may be entirely possible, because at no time, to my knowledge has their been access to so many exquisite natural botanical essences.

In the coming year we will periodically offer through our newsletters opportunities procure small amounts of some of the rarer and lesser known absolute which we do not normally stock like Arnica, Carob, Calendula, Gentian, Wheat/Ble, Bran, etc. It is not possible to regularly stock every absolute as they tend to be costly materials but by good fortune we now have access to many of these special materials through extractors living in different parts of the world. You can look for the chance to procure them in the Updates section of the newsletter.

Absolute Monographs (Aglaia -- Bruyere)


Aglaia Absolute
Aglaia odorata Absolute is extracted from the comminuted seeds of the Chinese Perfume Tree also called Chinese Rice Flower Tree.

A deep olive green liquid displaying a rich warm and suave floral fruity aroma. It is layered on top of a an intriguing precious woods, herbaceous tea-like body note.

In perfumery its unique qualities can be used in elegant floral bases of many types. Aside from its specific olfactory qualities its depth, warmth and mellowness acts as a unifying medium between other ingredients. Blends well with boronia absolute, champaca absolute, carnation absolute, cassie absolute, henna leaf absolute, mimosa absolute, ylang absolute, saffron attar, lily magnolia co2, orange blossom absolute, jasmin absolute.

Ambrette Seed Absolute
Ambrette Seed Absolute is extracted from the seed of Abelmoschus moschatus. The plant is an erect, annual or biennial, hirsute herb with yellow flowers.

It is a light amber color viscous liquid with a delicate but rich, sweet, dried fruit, floral-musky(but not animalic) odor. The full elegant delicacy, radiance and roundness of the bouquet is experienced in all phases of the dry out. It has fine tenacity.

The unique combination of olfactory properties in the absolute mark it as a harmonizing and exalting fixative in sophisticated natural perfume composition. It has the unique ability to knit together the top middle and base notes in sublime way but must be used with great discretion or its own silky aromatic properties can dominate the composition. Breathes and elegant radiance into delicate floral compositions as well as refined oriental bouquets.
Blends beautifully with orris root abs, coriander oil, Nigella damascena abs, Ruh Kewda, Peru balsam eo, Osmanthus abs, rose otto and abs, neroli eo, orange blossom abs, sandalwood eo and abs, and many other expensive florals.

Angelica Root Absolute
Angelica Root Absolute is a dark brown viscous liquid extracted from the roots of Angelica archangelica a herbaceous perennial of European origin or Angelica sinensis of Chinese origin.

Intense heavy, rich, sweet, smoky, leathery, balsamic, animalic, rooty-musky odor displays itself throughout the dry out. Distinctly recalls the odor of old-fashioned apothecary shops. Very powerful, radiant and tenacious. The odor of the absolute bears little resemblance to the essential oil distilled from the roots.

Valued in perfumery for is incredible tenacity, coupled with its rich animalic body notes. Must be used with great discretion as even in small percentages it has a marked effect on any perfume composition. In trace amounts is valued in chypres, fougeres, oriental bases.

Blends beautifully with choya loban, choya nakh, vetiver, ambrette seed Abs.. Aglaia odorata abs., amberi attar, shamama attar, agarwood eo, mandarin-petitgrain eo, orange flower water abs, seaweed abs., oakmoss abs, costus root eo, clary sage eo, patchouli, opoponax and myrrh.

"From the earth they had drawn its moisture, and made the ditch dry; some of the sweetness of the air had entered into their fibres, and the rushes - the common rushes - were full of beautiful summer. The white pollen of early grasses growing on the edge was dusted from them each time the hawthorn boughs were shaken by a thrush. These lower sprays came down in among the grass, and leaves and grass-blades touched. Smooth round stems of angelica, big as a gun-barrel, hollow and strong, stood on the slope of the mound, their tiers of well-balanced branches rising like those of a tree. Such a sturdy growth pushed back the ranks of hedge parsley in full white flower, which blocked every avenue and winding bird's-path of the bank."
--from Pageant of Summer
by Richard Jefferies

Arnica Absolute
Arnica Absolute is extracted from the flowers of the perennial plant which grows wild in many parts of Northern and Central Europe, Scandinavian, Russia and Northern India
The absolute is a dark, amber to green colored viscous liquid displaying a sunny,delicate, incense-resinous, sweet-herbaceous bouquet. Just beneath the surface a refined, pleasant, tea leaf-dried fruit(prune)note can be detected.

In perfumery it finds use in fine herbaceous blends, chypres, fougeres, colognes etc. It is particularly valued for its special contributions to men's fragrances of the leathery, spicy citrus types.

Like many absolutes it has a unique harmonizing effect on other natural essential oils and co2 extracts that come into its company.
Blends well with Labdanum "incense note" abs, Labdanum "amber note" abs, cistus eo, frankincense, mate abs. henna leaf abs, tea leaf abs, birch tar rectified, , cade eo, patchouli eo, lavender eo and abs, clary sage eo and abs, rosemary verbenone eo, rosemary eo, sage eo, citrus oils, bucchu leaf eo, marigold abs, pennyroyal eo, etc.

An acorn fell abruptly
And smote his nose: whereat he spoke
Of acorns most corruptly.
"Great Scott!" he cried. "The Dickens!" too, And other authors whom he knew,
And having duly mentioned those,
He expeditiously arose.

Then, though with pain he nearly swooned, He bathed his organ nasal
With arnica, and soothed the wound
With extract of witch hazel;
And surely we may well excuse
The victim if he changed his views:
"If pumpkins fell from trees like that," He murmured, "Where would I be at?"
--from Fables for the Frivolous
by Guy Whitmore Carryl

Bakul absolute
Bakul absolute is extracted from the flowers of the large evergreen tree growing through India. Small scale extraction occurs in South India.

The absolute is a viscous amber liquid with a ethereal, rich, , honey-like, sweet floral odor with elegant warm, creamy, carmel-like body note with good tenacity.

In perfumery it can serve as an excellent modifier in high class floral compositions seamlessly uniting the top and base notes. It would be invaluable in creating temple and garland perfumes as the flowers are considered sacred in Indian tradition.

Blends well with sandalwood, champa abs and attar, jasmin sambac attar and abs, jasmin grandiflorum abs, ruh khus, vetiver eo and co2 extract, gulhina attar, boronia abs, Aglaia odorata abs,, tuberose abs, neroli eo, orange blossom abs, longoza abs, frangipani as, fenugreek eo and co2 extract , broom abs, ambrette seed abs and co2 extract, white champa eo, ylang abs and eo, agarwood eo.

I must search in the drowsy shade of the bakula grove, where pigeons coo in their corner, and fairies' anklets tinkle in the stillness of starry nights.
--from The Crescent Moon
by Rabindranath Tagore

Beeswax absolute
Beeswax absolute is extracted from the wax of bees, Apies mellifera. The wax is produced all over the world and the exact odor of the absolute depends on the aroma of the pollen of the flowers that go into making up the honey that in turn penetrates into the honeycomb or wax.

In general though it can be said that Beeswax Absolute is a solid waxy mass of pale yellow to dark gold color with a delicate soft, warm, sweet, powdery-waxy odor with a diffusive herbaceous, rich hay-like undertone.

Beeswax absolute is used in perfumes where one wishes to convey the sense of a aroma-laden herb garden or a fragrant wild flower meadow. It is also valued for its role of rounding off the rough edges of a composition. Its aromatic impact in a composition may be small but its warming, softening, harmonizing effect is pronounced.

It blends well with helichrysum eo, flouve eo, hay absolute, honey absolute, jasmin abs, mimosa abs, rose absolute, boronia abs, cassie abs, Aglaia odorata abs, orange blossom abs, ylang eo and abs, rose otto and abs,, chamomile eo, broom abs, , bakul abs, tuberose abs.

She loved the smell of the house when she opened the door each Friday evening. It was a smell as familiar as her own scent on her petticoats as she pulled them over her head and her nightgown when she folded it to put it under her pillow. Her own scent was impossible to unravel, but she could say exactly what made up the scent of her mother's house. The first part was whatever might be cooking. Then there was the smell of the beeswax on the wide floor boards, the painted woodwork and the
furniture. There was always a hint of pennyroyal that was hidden behind and under things to keep out ants and other insects. Now, in the summer, the open windows added a whiff of manure from the cows and horses, and a changing note of flowers, grass or hay, depending on whether it was blooming time, cutting time or gathering time.
--from Berkshire Wedding
by Judith Greenwood

Benzoin (Siam) Absolute
The absolute of Siam Benzoin is extracted from the balsamic resin of the tree, Styrax tonkinensis. Main collection of the resin occurs in Laos with smaller quantities in Vietnam. As the pure absolute is solid plastic mass and very difficult to work with, various materials are added to make it pourable. Perfumers alcohol is preferable but DPG(diethyl phthalate) is more common. Nowadays benzyl benzoate and dipropylene glycol are now also commonly used in diluents. DPG is often used to make other resin absolutes(myrrh, frankincense, etc) pourable but may not be indicated by the purveyor or the material. Even with the addition of 50% ethanol or DPG the material is quite thick and somewhat sticky.

The odor of the absolute is pleasant, delicate sweet balsamic with a distinct vanilla odor.

Benzoin(Siam) is valued as a fixative in perfumery, in colognes, in alcohol for "pre fixation" prior to preparation of colognes and lotions. Also valued for use in oriental perfumes where it imparts its sweet balsamic notes, in powdering fragrances etc.

Blends well with frankincense, myrrh, opoponax, cinnamon bark, fir balsam absolute, calamus, vetiver, cyperus, , cistus, labdanum absolute, tonka absolute, etc.

‘Well, I’m the wrong side of the counter to believe much in patent medicines. But there are asthma cigarettes and there are pastilles. To tell you the truth, if you don’t object to the smell, which is very like incense, I believe, though I’m not a Roman Catholic, Blaudett’s Cathedral Pastilles relieve me as much as anything.’
‘Let’s try.’ I had never raided a chemist’s shop before, so I was thorough. We unearthed the pastilles—brown, gummy cones of benzoin—and set them alight under the toilet-water advertisement, where they fumed in thin blue spirals.
Rudyard Kipling

Benzoin (Sumatra) Absolute

The absolute of Sumatra Benzoin is extracted from the balsamic resin of the tree, Styrax benzoin which grows in Indonesia.

The odor is similar to the Siam Benzoin but is somewhat harsher and less refined due to the presence of cinnamate esters which are also found in Styrax.

Each of the Benzoin extracts find their own uses with the Siam Benzoin being preferred for fine perfumery work and Sumatra Benzoin for hyacinth, new mown hay, and sharp floral types of perfumes.

BlackCurrant Absolute
BlackCurrant Absolute is extracted from unripe buds of the shrub Ribes nigrum which is mainly grown in France but also in Australia, Holland, Poland and England.

It is a dark green or blue green semi solid paste or very viscous liquid with a peculiar pungent, slightly phenolic, green, woody-spicy odor. The term "cat urine-like" has been used to describe one of the aromatic components of the absolute.

In perfumery it needs to be used with great discretion as the intense and peculiar odor of the absolute can easily dominate a composition. Yet is is a valuable addition to any creative perfumer's palette as its unique range of notes can give unique tints and hues to a natural perfume.

Forms nice accords with tomato leaf absolute, bitter fennel eo, cedar leaf eo, davana eo, Artemisia annua eo, Artemisia afra eo, yarrow eo, pennyroyal eo, hyssop eo, tagetes eo, rue eo.

Biddy, having rubbed the leaf to pieces between her hands,--and the smell of a black-currant bush has ever since recalled to me that evening in the little garden by the side of the lane,--said, "Have you never considered that he may be proud?"
"Proud?" I repeated, with disdainful emphasis.
"O! there are many kinds of pride," said Biddy, looking full at me and shaking her head; "pride is not all of one kind--"
--from Great Expectations
by Charles Dickens

Boronia Absolute
Boronia Absolute is extracted for the flowers of Boronia megastigma which grows in Australia and Tasmania.

The absolute is a deep golden-orange viscous liquid(sometimes green depending on solvent)with a delightful wild, ethereal, tangy, fresh, sweet, herbaceous-tea, violet-like odor , with a warm sweet roseaceous, , coumarinic undertone.

It is highly valued in high class floral perfumes and bases. Used in natural creations of violet, sweet pea, honeysuckle , mimosa and cassie types as its aromatic profile has many exquisite facets that fortify the above mentioned florals.

Blends well with cassie abs, mimosa abs, Aglaia odorata abs, elder flower abs, cananga eo, champaca abs, ylang eo and abs, , frankincense eo, labdanum, abs, cistus eo, jasmin abs, orange flower abs,, mandarin petitgrain eo, ruh kewda and attar kewda, peru balsam eo, , jonquil abs, violet leaf abs.

Genet Absolute
Broom/Genet Absolute is extracted from the flowers of the wild shrub, Sparticum junceum which grows in Italy, south of France, and Spain.

The absolute is a dark brown, semi solid or very viscous liquid, with a deep roseaceous-floral, coumarinic, honey, sweetness. A fine herbaceous, hay-like accord sits beneath the surface and has good tenacity.

In perfumery it is used in various floral bases where its rich honey-sweet, floral notes add richness, fullness and body to the composition. Rose bases, tuberose, cassie, mimosa, honeysuckle and violet benefit from its presence.

Blends well with flouve eo, hay eo and abs, helichrysum eo and abs, blue chamomile eo and abs, fir balsam absolute, tonka abs, orris root abs and co2 extract, boronia abs.

Oh the Broom, the yellow Broom,
The ancient poet sung it,
And dear it is on summer days
To lie at rest among it.
by Mary Howitt [1799-1888]

Bruyere Absolute
Bruyere Absolute is extracted from root of tree heather, Erica arborea. It grows all over the Mediterranean region and is common in Algeria, Corsica, and the Canary Islands. The roots of old trees are collected for the purpose of carving tobacco pipes. The waste wood is collected for extraction to produce the Bruyere Absolute.

The absolute is a pale yellow or brownish yellow , solid but soft mass. It is similar in consistency to guaicwood and araucaria oil.

The odor of bruyere absolute is soft, green-woody, mellow-balsamic, with a delicate spicy aromatic undertone
Valued addition to rose perfumes, chypre bases, crepe de Chine, oriental-woody bases to which it contributes a delightful undertone and fine fixative effect.

Blends well with araucaria eo, amyris eo, copaiba balsam, guaicwood, gurjun balsam, bois de rose, ho leaf eo, ho wood eo, linaloe seed eo, atlas cedarwood, himalayan cedarwood, muhuhu eo, virginia cedarwood, sage clary, frankincense, labdanum abs, orris root co2 and abs, oakmoss, agarwood eo, vetiver eo and co2 extract, nagarmotha eo.

Absolute Monographs  (Cardamom - Champa)

Cardamom Absolute
Cardamom Absolute is extracted from the seeds of Elettaria cardamomum a plant of the ginger family.

The absolute is a dark brown, almost black viscous liquid with a very rich, full, fresh, warm, sweet-spicy, aromatic odor with a lovely mild balsamic,delicate, sweet floral undertone. The tenacity of the absolute is very good. It is almost entirely devoid of the the penetrating, camphoraceous, cineole-like topnote found in the essential oil and represents very well the natural bouquet of the dried seeds albeit in much more concentrated form.

In perfumery it imparts a fine spiciness and warm sweet note into perfume bases such as rose and lily-of-the valley. It is a valued contributor to high-class male oriented fragrances where spicy, herbal and citrus notes are used extensively. It imparts warmth to oriental bases, and chypres.

It blends well with laurel leaf eo and abs, mace eo, sweet marjoram eo, myrtle eo, nutmeg eo and abs, lovage eo, citrus oils, coriander eo and co2 extract, frankincense, ylang eo and abs, rose otto and abs, beeswax abs, cananga eo, myrrh eo, orris abs and co2 extract, osmanthus abs, ruh kewda, balsam peru eo, allspice eo and co2 extract, cumin co2 and eo.

"Yet these creatures receive their start in life from others: there is one, a bird, which renews itself, and reproduces from itself. The Assyrians call it the phoenix. It does not live on seeds and herbs, but on drops of incense, and the sap of the cardamom plant. When it has lived for five centuries, it then builds a nest for itself in the topmost branches of a swaying palm tree, using only its beak and talons. As soon as it has lined it with cassia bark, and smooth spikes of nard, cinnamon fragments and yellow myrrh, it settles on top, and ends its life among the perfumes."
-- from "Pythagoras’s Teachings:The Phoenix", Metamorphoses
by Ovid

Carnation Absolute
Carnation Absolute is extracted from the flowers of Dianthus caryophyllus. Today it is mainly cultivated in Egypt for the extraction of the absolute.

The absolute is a viscous olive green, green or orange-brown liquid(may solidify under cool temperatures) with a fine heavy, warm, sweet-spicy, honey-like, floral bouquet which is quite tenacious. The sweet floral spiciness persists deep into the dryout.

In perfumery its depth, warmth and floral spiciness are valued in rose, lily and narcissus bases. It is also appreciated by perfumers seeking new vistas of olfactory expression.

Blends well with Agalia odorata abs, boronia abs, cassie abs, mimosa abs, elder flower abs, ylang eo and abs, champaca abs, kadam attar, orange blossom abs, jasmin abs and hydroessence, henna leaf abs, tea leaf abs, sage clary eo and abs, lavender eo and abs.

"There were flowers: delphiniums, sweet peas, bunches of lilac; and carnations, masses of carnations. There were roses; there were irises. Ah yes—so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the irises and roses and nodding tufts of lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness."
--from Mrs. Dalloway
by Virginia Woolf

Carob Bean Absolute
Carob Bean Absolute is extracted from the dried fruit pods of Certonia siliqua a small tree native to the Middle East.

The absolute is a dark brown solid plastic mass with a fine ethereal, rich, powdery, sweet vanilla-chocolate, slightly wine-like bouquet with a delicate, warm animalic, floral undertone.

A rare material that is a relatively recent introduction into the world of natural aromatics. Could be used in small quantities for its rich , warm complex, deep radiance in a fine floral perfumes where unique tints and shades are desired.

Blends well with boronia abs, cassie abs, mimosa abs, Aglaia odorata abs, hops co2 select and eo, spikenard co2 and eo, galbanum, shamama attar, amberi attar, agarwood eo, cinnamon bark co2 and eo, vanilla co2 and abs, , jonquil abs, oakmoss abs, hay abs, flouve eo, fenugreek eo and co2, opoponax eo, clove bud co2 and abs, tuberose abs.

"The carob-tree is an instance. This beautiful and almost eternal growth, the “hope of the southern Apennines” as Professor Savastano calls it, whose pods constitute an important article of commerce and whose thick-clustering leaves yield a cool shelter, comparable to that of a rocky cave, in the noonday heat, used to cover large tracts of south Italy. Indifferent to the scorching rays of the sun, flourishing on the stoniest declivities, and sustaining the soil in a marvellous manner, it was planted wherever nothing else would grow–a distant but sure profit."
--from Old Calabria
By Norman Douglas

Cassie Absolute
Cassie absolute is extracted from the flowers of the small tree, Acacia farnesiana. Main production now occurs in Egypt with limited production in France. The absolute is a dark yellow or pale brown viscous liquid to yellow or orange waxy solid.

Cassie Absolute displays a rich, radiant, honey-sweet, floral , resinous, powdery-spicy odor. A fine mellow deep spicy-balsamic, precious wood, slightly violet-like note remains in evidence deep into the dryout.

In perfumery the absolute is used in expensive perfumes to which imparts radiant warmth and a fine complex floral-spicy sweetness. Heavy floral blends, woody-oriental, and resinous amer bases benefit from its presence. Violet bases especially employ Cassie abs.
Blends well with elder flower abs, boronia abs, mimosa absolute, gulhina attar, cananga eo, ylang abs and eo, lily magnolia co2, white champa eo, saffron attar, frankincense eo and abs, cistus eo, labdanum abs, jasmin abs, Jasmin grandiflorum hydroessence, orange flower abs, karo karounde abs, ruh kewda, osmanthus abs, peru balsam eo.

"The air was heavy with scent. All round the great quadrangle of the house acacia trees were in bloom, and the bees were working busily among the mignonette and roses in front of the office door."
An Outback Marriage
Chapter V
--from The Coming of the Heiress
by Andrew Barton ‘Banjo’ Paterson

Celery Seed Absolute
Celery Seed Absolute is extracted from the seeds of Apium graveolens and herbaceous perennial which both grows wild and is cultivated in India, France, Holland, Hungary and China.

The absolute is a olive green or dark green viscous liquid with a warm, green herbaceous, earthy, slightly dry pungent-spicy odor with a warm soft radiance and good tenacity.

Seldom used in perfumery but it could be put to good use in men's fragrances where its earthy-spicy notes and good tenacity would be appreciated. Oriental compositions might also benefit from its presence as well as forest blends where one wishes to take advantage of the unique green, earthy notes present in the absolute. This is one of the absolutes that must be used in tiny amounts so that it does not come forward and dominate the composition.

Blends well with lavender absolute, oakmoss absolute, opoponax, anise seed eo, fenugreek co2 extract and eo, allspice eo and co2 extract, cumin co2 an eo, Rosa bourbonia abs, champaca abs, frankincense eo and abs, opoponax eo, blue spruce abs, white cedarwood abs, fir balsam abs.

"In fact, were I not, with my task well-nigh done, about to furl my sails and making haste to turn my prow to land, perchance I might sing what careful tendance clothes rich gardens in flower, and might sing of Paestum whose rose beds bloom twice yearly, how the endive rejoices in drinking streams, the verdant banks in celery; how the cucumber, coiling through the grass, swells into a paunch. Nor should I have passed in silence the late-flowering narcissus, the twining tendril of the acanthus, pale ivy sprays, or the shore-loving myrtle."
--from Georgics
by Virgil, translated by H. R. Fairclough

Chamomile, Blue Absolute
Chamomile, Blue Absolute is extracted from the flowers of Matricaria chamomilla which grows wild Europe and is cultivated in Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, Egypt, Nepal and India. The absolute is mainly extracted in Egypt.

The absolute is a very viscous or semi-solid deep blue or blue-green mass with a sweet, somewhat heavy herbaceous, hay-like odor with a deep, fruity, warm tobacco like odor. The fresh topnote which is present in the essential oil is absent in the absolute.

In perfumery can be used in herbaceous and citrus colognes, fougeres, and herbal bouquets where its deep warm complex olfactory characteristics can both round off the composition an contribute fixative effect.

Blends well with helichrysum eo and abs, english/roman chamomile, flouve abs and eo, hay eo and oil, broom abs, fir balsam abs, tonka abs, oakmoss, bergamot eo, yuzu eo and abs, sage clary eo and abs, labdanum abs.

"Nothing ever equalled the thrill, he has told me, of finding the first thrush's nest in the laurels by the gate, or of catching the first smell of the lilac bushes in spring, or the pungent scent of the chamomile and wild celery down by the little stream."
--from Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton, B. A. Of Trinity College, Cambridge Extracted From His Letters And Diaries, With Reminiscences Of His Conversation By His Friend Christopher Carr Of The Same College
by Arthur Christopher Benson

Champaca, Golden Absolute
Champaca, Golden Absolute is extracted from the golden flowers of the tree, Michelia champaca which is grows in the Philippines, Madagascar and Indonesia but the main supplier of the absolute is India.

The absolute is a deep yellow or brownish orange colored viscous liquid or semi-solid mass(though easily pourable after gentle heat.

The absolute radiates a delicate, sweet, ethereal, fresh and exotic floral odor. A fine undertone of refined tea-like notes mingles with an aromatic spicy one. An altogether exquisite absolute with captures the spirit of the East.

In perfumery it can be used in high class bases eg rose, lily of the valley, violet, carnation and would be a fine ingredient for perfumers who wish to introduce warm elegant notes at the highest level of perfume creation.

Blends well with lily magnolia co2, white champa leaf eo, white champa flower eo, ylang abs and eo, orange blossom abs, neroli eo, rose otto and abs, violet leaf abs, orris root co2 and abs, parijata attar, sandalwood eo, cabreuva co, boronia abs, Jasmin sambac abs and hydroessence, Jasmin auriculatum abs and hydroessence, ruh kewda and attar, Rosa bourbonia abs.

" When after your bath, with wet hair spread on your shoulders, you walked through the shadow of the champa tree to the little court where you say your prayers, you would notice the scent of the flower, but not know that it came from me."
--from "The Crescent Moon"
by Rabindranath Tagore

Absolute Monographs (Clove Bud - Cumin)

Clove Bud Absolute
Clove Bud Absolute is extracted from the dried flower buds of Eugenia caryophylla, a medium sized tropical tree.

The absolute is an olive-green, greenish brown or orange brown viscous or oily liquid which may solidify a cooler temperatures into a semi-solid mass.

The odor is rich, smooth, sweet-spicy, fruity, with a balsamic, coumarinic, precious wood, slight wine-like undertone having very good tenacity and its diffusive power is also excellent. A fine delicate fresh floral note emerges with the spicy sweetness as the dryout proceeds. The absolute is distinct from the essential oil in that it is free from the dry terpenic notes that are formed during distillation.

The smooth rich, warm, spicy diffusive bouquet is much appreciated in many floral bases eg rose, carnations, ylang, cassie and narcissus and in various spice bouquets. Clove played an important role in the evolution of the spice trade and could play a key role in capturing the essence of the early years of the international spice trade when spices found there way to international ports via ship. Clove is also an important ingredient in traditional Chinese and Indian incense and would work well in a smokeless incense perfume. Lastly it is an important ingredient in Indian cooking and other international cuisines and hence could be used in a number of culinary perfumes.

Blends well with ambrette seed abs and co2 extract, ylang abs and eo, cananga, champaca abs, cardamon eo and co2 extract, ginger eo and co2 extract, holy basil eo, patchouli abs and eo, cinnamon bark co2 and eo, fenugreek co2, pimenta berry oil and abs, bay leaf eo, fir balsam abs.

"I had often occasion to notice the use that was made of fragments and small opportunities in Cranford; the rose-leaves that were gathered ere they fell to make into a potpourri for someone who had no garden; the little bundles of lavender flowers sent to strew the drawers of some town-dweller, or to burn in the chamber of some invalid. Things that many would despise, and actions which it seemed scarcely worth while to perform, were all attended to in Cranford. Miss Jenkyns stuck an apple full of cloves, to be heated and smell pleasantly in Miss Brown's room; and as she put in each clove she uttered a Johnsonian sentence. Indeed, she never could think of the Browns without talking Johnson; and, as they were seldom absent from her thoughts just then, I heard many a rolling, three-piled sentence."
--from Cranford by Elizabeth Gaskell

Cocoa Absolute
Cocoa Absolute is extracted from the roasted pods of Theobroma cacao which grows on a medium sized tropical tree.

The absolute is a dark brown viscous liquid or solid pasty mass with a rich, bitter-sweet, roasted-nutty, oily-fatty, chocolatey aroma.

Used in perfumery for its deep rich luscious aroma where it serves well in a growing interest in culinary perfumes which recreate the aromas of the foods we like. It also has ancient associations with the spiritual life of the people of South America and Mexico and could be used in sacred perfumes. At one time cocoa shops where the rage in UK (starting in the 1600's) and might serve well in a historical perfume.

Some forms of the absolute may require an emulsifier to become soluble in carrier oils.

Blends well with coconut abs, vetiver eo and co2 extract, agarwood eo, benzoin abs, labdanum abs, ambrette seed abs and co2 extract, anise seed eo, fennel seed co, cinnamon co2 and eo, ylang abs, balsam peru eo, cassia co2 and eo, spikenard co2 and eo, shamama attar, osmanthus abs, peppermint eo and abs, sweet orange eo, hazelnut co2, mushroom abs, vanilla co2 and absolute, butter co2.

"But Roger was prompt in closing Parnassus at ten o'clock. At that hour he and Bock (the mustard-coloured terrier, named for Boccaccio) would make the round of the shop, see that everything was shipshape, empty the ash trays provided for customers, lock the front door, and turn off the lights. Then they would retire to the den, where Mrs. Mifflin was generally knitting or reading. She would brew a pot of cocoa and they would read or talk for half an hour or so before bed. Sometimes Roger would take a stroll along Gissing Street before turning in. All day spent with books has a rather exhausting effect on the mind, and he used to enjoy the fresh air sweeping up the dark Brooklyn streets, meditating some thought that had sprung from his reading, while Bock sniffed and padded along in the manner of an elderly dog at night."
--from The Haunted Bookshop by Christopher Morley

Coffee Bean Absolute
Coffee Bean Absolute is extracted from roasted beans of the Coffea arabica shrub which is a native to North Africa but is grown extensively in India, South America, etc.

The absolute is a dark brown to black thick grainy mass with a dry, sharp,rich, bitter, roasted, nutty, earthy, coffee-like aroma, with a slight creamy, carmelic-spicy undertone.

Again it can find use in culinary perfumes and other creative perfume work where one is looking to add some unique note to an adventurous composition. It could work very well in compositions of an earthy type. Would be a welcome addition to special ethnic compositions where one wishes to evoke the aroma of ancient traditions. It would be an invaluable central note in modern culinary perfumes.

Blends well with cinnamon co2 and eo, cardamon co2 and eo, peppermint eo, mushroom abs., mitti attar, shamama attar, ambari attar, ruh khus, sweet orange eo, orange essence eo, hazelnut co2, wheat/ble abs, bran abs.

I tore back through the orchard and the kitchen garden, intent upon finding my uncle alone and imparting to him the wonderful news which I felt pretty sure he would much rather receive privately than in the presence of his sisters. But as I crossed the lawn the great bell which summoned us to meals began to clang, and I knew that tea was ready. I went, therefore, straight into the dining-room, and found, as I had expected, the family already assembled; the lamps were lighted, though it was not quite dark, the urn was bubbling and hissing, the coffee sent up a fragrant aroma, and Mr. Perren had his steaming cup of tea before him, and was helping himself to honey, in which he greatly delighted.
--from Chrystabel by Emma Jane Worboise

Coffee Flower Absolute
Coffee Flower Absolute is extracted from the flowers of Coffea arabica. Main extraction takes place in Madagascar. Just a couple of kilos are extracted each year so this rates as a super rare absolute.

The absolute is a light brownish viscous liquid with a delicate but diffusive sweet spicy floral bouquet with a refined tea-like, vanillic undertone. The floral note shares something in common with fine jasmin grandiflorum, ylang abs, boronia absolute but the other olfactory components give it unique ethereal richness which is quite distinct.

Would work well in any number of very high floral compositions. It is a perfume in itself and all additions to it would need to be made with great discretion. It would also be a fine addition to high class tropical perfumes.

Blends well with sandalwood, boronia, ylang, jasmin hydroessence and abs, vanilla abs and co2 extract, tuberose abs, frangipani abs, longoza abs, neroli eo, coriander eo and co2 extract, amberi attar, agarwood amberi attar, davana eo, cardamon eo and co2 extract, ambrette seed abs and co2 extract.

" The scent of an entire coffee plantation in bloom can be so intense that sailor have reported smelling the perfume two or three miles out to sea. Such glory is short-lived, however; three or four days later, the petals are strewn on ground and the small coffee berries, or cherries as they are called in the trade, begin to form clusters at the base of the leaves."
--from Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying by Kenneth Davids

Coconut Absolute
Coconut Absolute is extracted from the the lightly roasted deoileated coconut cake from the nut of the tropical tree, Cocos nucifera.

The absolute is a yellow or light brown viscous liquid or a low melting solid.

It has a peculiar soft, fresh, tropical , warm oily-nutty aroma with a slightly pungent undertone. Would be an excellent addition to tropical perfumes where one wishes to evoke the exotic smells which surround one in the warm humid island environments. It does not exert a tremendous individual olfactory influence on a tropical composition but acts in harmony many exotic essences to warm and enrich them. There are some aromatic essences that are destined to play a quiet supporting role in a perfume and one may mistakenly think that they might be excluded but it is important to consider that a perfume is much more than distinct olfactory impressions. There are elements of tenacity, warm, radiance, softness etc that support the beauty of the final product.

Blends well with pomegranate absolute, ginger co2 and eo, clove bud abs, frangipani abs, ylang abs and eo, pomegranate abs, hazelnut co2, jasmin sambac abs and hydroessence, ambrette seed abs and co2 extract, nutmeg co2 and abs, combava petitgrain eo, tuberose abs, massoia bark eo and co2 extract.

" How little we can conceive the spaces in his life that would be empty without that firm pulp, at once nutritious, sweet and fragrant! Curry cannot be made without it, the cook cannot advance three steps in its absence, pattimars laden with it are sailing north, south, east and west, a thousand creaky wooden mills are squeezing the limpid oil out of it, a hundred thousand little earthen lamps filled with that oil are making visible the smoky darkness of hut and temple, brightening the wedding feast and illuminating the sad page over which the candidate for university honours nods his shaven head. That oil fed lighthouses of the first order and illuminated viceregal balls and durbars before paraffin and kerosene inundated the earth. And it has other uses. For arresting premature baldness and preventing the hair turning grey its virtues are equalled by no other oil known to us, and there is a fortune awaiting the hairdresser who can find means effectually to remove or suppress its peculiar and penetrating odour. Joao Gomez, my faithful "boy," did not object to the odour, and when he had been tempted to pass my comb through his raven locks as he was dusting my dressing table, I always knew it."
--from Concerning Animals and Other Matters by E.H. Aitken

Costus Absolute
Costus Absolute is extracted from the dried roots of Saussaurea lappa, an herbaceous perennial that growns in the Himalayas.

The absolute is semi-solid mass of very viscous liquid of pale amber or brownish amber color. The odor is of the absolute resembles the root itself. It shares certain olfactory qualities with the essential oil but appears in the first instance to be weaker and also less harsh. It is soft- precious-woody, somewhat violet- like and fatty without unpleasant "harsh" or "rancid-fatty notes. It has fine tenacity and superb fixative value.

Costus root absolute is valued for the warm, precious woods, natural notes in perfumery work. Oriental perfumes, chypres, violet bases, exotic tropical bases, etc benefit from its presence. It has the unique ability to produce diffusive power and unique topnotes to perfume compositions. Costus root would be a valuable addition to smokeless incense perfumes as it is a greatly appreciated and valued ingredient in traditional Chinese and Japanese incense.

Blends well with sandalwood, orris root, cinnamon leaf, cinnamon bark, flouve oil, opoponax,, oakmoss abs, patchouli eo and abs, calamus root, agarwood eo and co2 extract, vetiver eo and co2 extract, angelica root eo and co2 extract, nagarmotha eo and co2 extract.

"Costus is universally employed by the shawl-merchants in Kashmir as a protector of Kashmir fabrics from the attacks of moth and insects. The dried root is an agreeable fumigatory and yields excellent pastilles which burn fairly. It is exported in enormous quantities to China, where it is used as an incense. Baden Powell in his 'Punjab Products" says:--'Lines of camels may often be met passing down to Multan, the 'Kut(costus)' perfuming the air for a considerable distance...' "
--from Odorographia: A Natural History of Raw Materials and Drugs Used in the Perfume Industry by John Charles Sawer

Cumin absolute
Cumin absolute is extracted from the seeds of the herb, Cuminum cyminum which grows throughout the Middle East and India.

The absolute is a dark olive-brown or dark yellow viscous liquid potent, diffusive, yet sublime, rich , powdery, green-spicy, woody odor. After the initial impact of the warm potent diffusive notes it settles in a complex, enticing slightly pungent but elegantly balanced spice bouquet which instantly conveys to the mind the preparation of an Indian meal where all the spices are ground fresh by hand and the air is permeated with their enticing aroma.

The absolute is used in trace amounts to introduce green-spicy and green-woody topnotes in woody-floral perfume types, oriental bases, mimosa, violet and cassie bases. It is one of those rare absolutes that can produce unique and special results in unusual perfume types. It can work to produce great radiant power to a composition in the hands of skilled perfumer. It can also produce fine effects in special culinary perfumes and ethnic compositions. Oriental bases and men's spicy aromatic blends benefit from trace amounts of this special material. It also could play a fine role in Culinary perfumes.

Blends well with oakmoss abs, lavindin abs, galbanum eo and abs, chypres, lavender-fougeres, bois de rose, rosemary verbenone and co2 extract, turmeric co2, vetiver co2 and eo, ambrette co2 and abs, cinnamon bark co2 and eo, ylang abs, black pepper co2 and eo, carrot seed co2 and eo, spikenard co2 and eo, mimosa abs, cassie abs, fenugreek co2 and eo, ginger co2 and eo.


Absolute Monographs (Cypress -- Galbanum)

Cypress Absolute
Cypress Absolute is extracted from the leaves and twigs of the evergreen tree Cupressus sempervirons which grows the Mediterranean and Balkan countries.

The absolute is a dark green very viscous liquid with a rich , sweet, fresh-balsamic, green-resinous, coniferous odor. The mellow sweet yet slightly pungent pine forest undertone is long lasting and delightful. The terpenic notes found in the essential oil are not present in the absolute.

In perfumery it is valued for its contributions to ambre perfumes, chypres, colognes, and all forest fragrances giving them a deep rich sweet green coniferous base. Cypress Absolute could form an important part of a sacred perfume as well as it has a rich religious symbolism in Western literature.

Blends well with cedarwood, cistus, labdanum abs, myrrh eo and co2 extract, fir balsam eo and abs, blue hemlock spruce eo and abs, frankincense. clary sage, lavender eo and abs, ambrette seed eo and co2, styrax eo, wild chamomile eo and abs, mandarin eo, cedarleaf eo, davana eo, sage eo, juniperberry eo and co2 extract, giant fir eo, douglas fir eo, cedarwood eo

"She sat up abruptly and looked through wide, opened doors into a garden. Broad steps dropped shallowly to an oval pool around whose sides were lithe willows trailing green tendrils in the blue water, wisterias with drooping ropes of blossoms, white and pale azure, and azaleas like flower flames. Rosy lilies lay upon the pool's breast. And at its far end was a small pagoda, fairy-like, built all of tiles of iridescent peacock blue and on each side a stately cypress, as though they were its ministers . . . why, this was their garden, the garden of the blue pagoda which Martin had copied from that place in Yunnan where lived his friend, the wise old priest. . . ."

--from The fox woman; and other stories by Abraham Merritt
Elderflower Absolute
Elderflower Absolute is extracted from the flowers of the small tree, Sambucus nigra, which grows wild throughout Europe with France being the main center of harvest and extraction.

The absolute is a very viscous liquid or solid waxy mass with a potent, warm, sweet, herbaceous, floral odor with a fruity, honey-waxy undercurrent. As the absolute goes deep into the dryout a green floral, coumarinic note emerges.

Appreciated in creative perfumery for the warm floral notes it imparts to compositions. Mainly used in trace amounts. Elderflower absolute could play a key role in mythological perfumes and sacred herbal perfumes.

Blends well with Aglaia odorata abs, boronia abs, cassie abs, mimosa abs, ylang abs, cananga eo, lily magnolia co2, palmarosa eo, carnation abs, tomar seed eo, jasmin abs, oakmoss abs.

"In those last days of June, before the big battles began, the countryside of the Somme valley was filled with splendor. The mustard seed had spread a yellow carpet in many meadows so that they were Fields of the Cloth of Gold, and clumps of red clover grew like flowers of blood. The hedges about the villages of Picardy were white with elderflower and drenched with scent. It was haymaking time and French women and children were tossing the hay on wooden pitchforks during hot days which came between heavy rains. Our men were marching through that beauty, and were conscious of it, I think, and glad of life."

--from Now It Can Be Told by Philip Gibbs

Fenugreek Absolute
Fenugreek Absolute is extracted from the seeds of the herb Trigonella foenum-graceum which is a native to India and Iran widely cultivated in Morocco, Greece, Egypt, China, India etc.

The absolute is a dark brown or red brown viscous liquid with a sweet-coumarinic, warm, powdery-spicy. slightly licorice like aroma. The curry-like, creamy, rich, spicy odor remains deep in the dryout.

In perfumery minute quantities are used to produce unique effects in oriental bases, chypres, fougere, lavender compositions, new mown hay, etc. With the growth of interest in natural perfumery many of these rare materials may find their place in the perfumers palette as they have the capability to set a fine composition apart from any others and give a special signature to ones creation. Often tiny trace amounts are able to infuse the creation with wonderful notes. Invaluable in creating culinary perfumes to capture the aroma of Indian cooking.

Blends well star anise eo, anise eo, fennel eo, ginger eo and co2 extract, frankincense, nutmeg abs and co2 extracts, cinnamon eo and co2 extract, ambrette seed co2 extract and abs, lavender abs and eo, oakmoss abs, clove bud abs and co2 extract, hay abs, flouve eo, helichrysum eo and abs, broom/genet abs, , fir balsam abs, tonka bean abs, tea abs, mate abs , seaweed abs.

Fir Balsam Absolute (Needle)
Fir Balsam Absolute (Needle) is extracted from the needles of Abies balsamea which is native to Canada and the northeastern part of the USA.

The absolutes is a dark green, very thick, sticky, viscous mass that needs to be warmed before pouring becomes possible. After aging it deposits needle shaped crystals on the surface of the absolute.

The absolute is a delightful, fresh, deep, sweet, mellow-balsamic, rich-fruity(strawberry jam-like), with a sublime coniferous undertone.

In perfumery the absolute can be used to great advantage small amounts to add warm and naturalness to fougeres, chypres, forest blends etc. Its radiance, depth and tenacity are amazing and a little bit goes a long way. Would be a valuable addition to sacred perfumes of the Native America people.

Blends well with all conifer oils, lavender abs and eo, labdanum abs, bergamot eo, yuzu eo, lime essence and eo, lavindin abs and eo, rosemary verbenone eo, oakmoss abs, mushroom abs, sage clary eo and abs, thyme eo and abs, ambrette co2 and abs, hemlock spruce abs, costus eo and abs, vetiver eo and co2 extract. cistus eo, arnica abs, hay abs, blackcurrant abs, carnation abs, orris root abs and co2 extract

"The early morning breeze was still blowing, and the warm, sunshiny air was of some ethereal northern sort, with a cool freshness as it came over new-fallen snow. The world was filled with a fragrance of fir-balsam and the faintest flavor of seaweed from the ledges, bare and brown at low tide in the little harbor. It was so still and so early that the village was but half awake."

--from The Country of the Pointed Firs by Sarah Orne Jewett

Flouve Absolute
Flouve Absolute is extracted from the dried flowering tops of the perennial grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum. Main production occurs in France.

The absolute is a viscous, greenish-amber to brownish-yellow liquid, have a sweet, herbaceous, tobacco-like and coumarinic odor. The odor is so rich and so complex that one can keep on finding notes in it. However, the overall fragrance is sweet, licorice-like, root-like, somewhat mossy-herbaceous like wet underforest and meadows, of exceptional tenacity and high penetrating power.

The absolute is used in chypre, fougere, pine, oriental bases and in traces as a sweetener for dry-woody notes. Finds use in recreating the aromas of American Indian smudge wands in combination with juniper berry, sage and cedar. Flouve is related to the sweet grass that is plays such an important role in Native American sacred tradition.

Blends well with vanilla co2 and absolute, english/roman chamomile co2 and eo, helichrysum abs and eo, german/blue chamomile co2 and eo, fir balsam abs, pine needle abs and eo, oakmoss abs, frankincense eo and co2 extract, lavender eo and abs, petitgrain eo, petitgrain sur fleur neroli eo, labdanum abs, cypress eo and abs, benzoin abs.

Frangipani Absolute
Frangipani Absolute is extracted from the flowers of the tree Plumeria alba which grows in India, Madagascar, Comoros Islands, Hawaii and many other tropical environments. Main centers of extraction are India and Comoros Islands.

The absolute is a yellow, orange or amber colored, solid waxy mass or very thick grainy viscous liquid(needs heating to become pourage).

The absolute displays a diffusive, heavy, exotic- floral, slightly pungent-green, powdery, odor with a creamy, fruity, floral undertone. It is used in fine perfumery for exotic tropical bouquets, heavy-oriental florals, fantasy bouquets, and in gardenia, tuberose, lilac and lily-of-the valley bases.

Blends well with tuberose abs, longoza abs, bakul abs, nerol eo, jasmin sambac abs and hydroessence, karo karounde abs, orange flower abs, ruh kewda, ruh motia, peru balsam eo, osmanthus abs, boronia abs, cassie abs, mimosa abs, ylang abs and eo, cananga eo, champaca abs

"Occasionally a small and comparatively cleared spot appears, with a crowded cluster of graves, with a pawn-shaped stone at the head of each, and the beautiful Frangipani,* the "Temple Flower" of Singhalese Buddhism, but the "Grave Flower" of Malay Mohammedanism, sheds its ethereal fragrance among the tombs. The dead lie lonely in the forest shade, under the feathery palm-fronds, but the living are not far to seek. "

--from The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither by Isabella L Bird

Galbanum absolute
Galbanum absolute is extracted from the oleo-gum-resin of the herbaceous perennial Ferula galbaniflua which is native to Turkey and Iran. Extraction mainly occurs in France from imported Iran galbanum.

The absolute is a deep golden, thick, sticky, mobile mass which needs some warming to be pourable.

The odor is warm, rich, pungent, green-resinous, woody, balsamic with a mellow, dry undertone. The intense penetrating topnotes so evident in the essential oil are mellowed considerably in the absolute. The absolute possesses fine tenacity.

The absolute is a fine fixative in its own right contributing unique olfactory properties to compositions it enters into. It finds use in lavender bouquets, fougere, Oriental bases, chypres, pine fragrances, woody bases, moss odors. It is considered a classic addition to hyacinth perfumes. Wonderful in incense perfumes and sacred perfumes.

Blends well with lavender eo and abs, hyacinth abs, violet leaf abs, cinnamon bark, geranium eo and abs, pine needle eo and abs, fir balsam abs and eo, styrax eo, bergamot eo, yuzu eo and abs, patchouli abs and co2 extract, lemon verbena abs and eo, lemon balm eo, ylang abs and eo, cistus eo, labdanum abs

"As for spices, never would your nostrils meet such an odor: bdellium from Scinde, musk from Tibet, galbanum from Khorasan; from Afghanistan, asafetida; from Persia, sagapenum; ambergris and civet from Zanzibar, and from Zanzibar came ivory, too. And from Zeila, Berbera, and Shehri came balsam
and frankincense. . ."

--from Messer Marco Polo by Brian Oswald Donn-Byrne (1889-1928)

Absolute Monographs  Geranium -- Hops

Geranium Absolute
Geranium Absolute is extracted from the leaves and branchlets of Pelargonium graveolens which grows in Morocco, Egypt (main center or extraction), India, France, and China.

The absolute is an olive green or green colored liquid with a powerful, penetrating, sweet herbaceous, green-leafy odor, with a fine fresh, minty-rosey undertone with good tenacity and radiance.

In perfumery it imparts a rich mellow body to rose perfumes. It finds use in herbal bouquets, colognes, fougeres, chypres and floral blends, lavender colognes and bases.

Blends well with Eucalyptus macarthurii, bucchu leaf eo and abs, rose abs, beeswax abs, davana eo, hyssop eo and co2 extract, yarrow eo, sage eo and co2 extract, wintergreen eo, sweet birch eo, tarragon eo and abs, oakmoss abs, ylang abs and eo, petitgrain sur fleur neroli, petitgrain sur fleur rose petals, tagetes eo, genda attar, narcissus abs, jonquil abs, basil eo and co2 extract, bergamot eo, peppermint eo and co2 extract, frankincense eo and co2 extract
"Then, a moment later, it changed into the south chamber that
had been his mother's bedroom--he could even detect the faint
scent of rose-geranium that always hung about her; he noticed
that the green shutters on the west windows were bowed, and from
between them a line of sunshine fell across the matting on the floor
and touched the four-poster that had a chintz spread and valance."
--from The Way to Peace by Margaret Deland

Ginger Absolute
Ginger Absolute is extracted from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale which grows in India, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Jamaica and many other countries.

The absolute is generally a viscous orange brown or dark, yellow brown liquid, just pourable at room temperature.

The absolute displays a fresh, rich, warm aromatic-spicy, pleasantly pungent odor with a mellow resinous, slightly camphoraceous, tangy, sweet-spicy bodynote.

Ginger absolute is valued in perfumery for the unique notes it introduces to high class perfumes, spicy men's fragrances, after shave lotions etc. It is fine addition to oriental bases, gardenia bases, tuberose bases and tropical bouquets in general, adding warmth, depth and exotic spiciness to the heady floral bouquets. It also plays an important role in liquid incense perfumes and culinary perfumes
Blends well with costus, ambrette seed, angelica root co2 and eo, labdanum abs, sandalwood eo and abs, patchouli eo and co2 extract, vetiver eo and co2 extract, frankincense co2 and eo, elemi eo, opoponax eo, bergamot eo, clove eo and co2 extract, cinnamon eo and co2 extract, ylang abs and eo, fenugreek co2 and eo, black pepper co2 and eo, coconut abs, orange blossom abs, mandarin petitgrain eo, mandarin eo.

“Ginger? Do I smell ginger?” suspiciously asked Stubb, coming near. “Yes, this must be ginger,” peering into the as yet untasted cup. Then standing as if incredulous for a while, he calmly walked towards the astonished steward slowly saying, “Ginger? ginger? and will you have the goodness to tell me, Mr. Dough-Boy, where lies the virtue of ginger? Ginger! is ginger the sort of fuel you use, Dough-boy, to kindle a fire in this shivering cannibal? Ginger!—what the devil is ginger?—sea-coal? firewood?—lucifer matches?—tinder?—gunpowder?—what the devil is ginger, I say, that you offer this cup to our poor Queequeg here.”
--from Moby-Dick by Herman Melville

Hay Absolute
Hay Absolute is extracted from various common ensilage grasses during the period of inflorescence, that have been dried. It is mainly produced in France on a small scale.

The absolute is a dark green, amber or brownish green viscous liquid with a sublime sweet, warm, very rich, coumarinic -herbaceous odor with a delicate mellow sweet fruity, fresh,herbaceous undertone.

A central and essential ingredient in "new mown hay" fragrances in combination with flouve as and eo, tonka bean abs, sweet woodruff abs, deertongue abs, etc. It is valued for the rich, sweet, herbaceous note it introduces into lavender colognes, fougeres, chypres, tea bases, tabac-notes, forest notes etc It introduces unique notes into jasmin, ylang and orange flower bases.

Blends well with broom abs, blue and english chamomile eo, helichrysum abs and eo, fir balsam abs, tonka abs, sweet woodruff abs, melilotus abs, araucaria eo, bruyere abs, ylang abs, marigold abs, tagetes eo, genda attar, hyssop eo, yarrow eo, melissa eo, verbena abs and eo, lavender abs and eo, lavindin abs and eo, tarragon eo and abs, beeswax abs, rose abs and eo.

"Pyotr Sergeyitch himself took the bridles off, and led the horses to their stalls. I stood in the doorway waiting for him to finish, and watching the slanting streaks of rain; the sweetish, exciting scent of hay was even stronger here than in the fields; the storm-clouds and the rain made it almost twilight."
--from "A Lady's Story" by Anton Chekhov

Helichrysum Absolute
Helichrysum absolute is distilled from the flowering tops of the small perennial plant, Helichrysum italicum that grows wild and is cultivated in France, Italy, Bosnia, Corsica and several other Mediterranean countries.

The absolute is a olive-green to dark-brown very viscous sticky liquid (not pourable at room temperature) displaying a warm herbaceous, spicy, hay-like odor, with a bright, mellow sweet, fenugreek-like, curry, dry woody undertone. Tenacity is excellent.

Appreciated in perfumery both for its fixative effect and the deep, mellow sweet spicy bouquet that has a harmonizing effect on the compositions into which it is incorporated. A number of absolutes have this special property of uniting all elements of a composition from top to base note and helichrysum absolute is in that group. It imparts vitality and naturalness to the materials that it comes into contact with. Very effective in oriental bases and culinary perfumes. Imparts a fine rich not to herbal bouquets and spicy colognes. Valued addition to sacred perfumes.

Blends well with tonka bean absolute, hay absolute, flouve abs and eo, lavindin abs and eo, sage clary eo and abs, peru balsam eo, rose abs and otto, honey abs, clove bud abs and eo, frankincense abs and eo, labdanum abs, star anise co2 and eo, sweet fennel eo, hyssop co2 and eo, rosemary verbenone eo, rosemary abs, melissa eo, verbena eo and abs, bergamot eo, lime eo.

"Perhaps the herb everlasting (Helichrysum italicum), the fragrant immortelle of our autumn field, has the most suggestive odor to me of all those that set me dreaming. I can hardly describe the strange thoughts and emotions that come to me as I inhale the aroma of its pale, dry, rustling flowers. A something it has of sepulchral spicery, as it had been brought from the core of some great pyramid, where it was laid on the breast of some mummified Pharoh. Something, too, of immortality in the sad, faint sweetness lingering so long in its lifeless petals. Yet this does not tell why it fills my eyes with tears and carries me in blissful thought to the banks of asphodel that border the River of Life. "
--from Scent Memories by Francis Jacox

Henna Leaf Absolute is extracted from the leaves of Lawsonia inermis a shrub which grow widely in India , Egypt, Iran, Indonesia, China etc. Extraction is done on a small scale in India.

The absolute is a dark brown, almost black, somewhat grainy viscous liquid with a soft green, dry-herbaceous, tea-like, slightly medicinal, woody odor. In the dry out phase the sweet, rich, delicate tea-like notes become more pronounced.

Henna leaf is used in perfumery to develop the green leaf notes in floral bouquets. Also valued for the rich body it lends to fougeres, new mown hay or meadowsweet fragrances. Important role in cultural and sacred perfume creations.

Blends well with orange flower water abs, orange flower abs, jasmin sambac abs, jasmin grandiflorum